Inverters control and efficiently convert the raw direct current (DC) energy collected by PV panels in a photovoltaic array into alternating current (AC) electricity for use in a home or business, or for resale to the electricity grid. Inverters, converters, charge controllers and output controllers for use in stand alone, utility interactive or a combination of both (multi-mode) systems. Utility Interactive devices operate in parallel with the utility grid. Stand-alone devices are intended to operate independent of the utility grid. Multimode devices can operate as both, either stand-alone (utility independent) or utility interactive devices. Testing and certification of inverters are in accordance with CSA C22.2 No. 107.1 and UL 1741 standards.